Gloydius

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Gloydius
Mamushi togurosugata.jpg
Gloydius blomhoffii, Japanese mamushi
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Gloydius
Hoge & Romano-Hoge, 1981
Synonyms[1]

Gloydius is a genus of venomous pitvipers endemic to Asia, also known as Asian moccasins or Asian ground pit vipers. Named after American herpetologist Howard K. Gloyd,[2] this genus is very similar to the North American genus Agkistrodon. 22 species are currently recognized.[3]

Geographic range[edit]

Species of Gloydius are found in Russia, east of the Ural Mountains through Siberia, Iran, Himalayas from Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Korea, Japan and the Ryukyu Islands.[1]

Species[edit]

Species[3] Taxon author[3] Subsp.*[3] Common name[4] Geographic range[1]
G. angusticeps Shi, Yang, Huang Orlov, & Li, 2018 0 Zoige pit viper China, (Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu).
G. blomhoffii (Stejneger, 1907) 3 Japanese mamushi China, Korea and Japan.
G. brevicaudus (H. Boie, 1826) 0 Short-tailed mamushi North Korea, South Korea, and China.
G. caraganus (Eichwald, 1831) 0 Karaganda pitviper Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.
G. caucasicus (Nikolsky, 1916) 0 Caucasian pitviper Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Afghanistan.
G. cognatus (Gloyd, 1977) 0 Alashan pitviper China.
G. halysT (Pallas, 1776) 4 Siberian pitviper Russia, east of the Ural Mountains through Siberia, Iran, Mongolia to northern and central China, as well as the southern Ryukyu Islands.
G. himalayanus (Günther, 1864) 0 Himalayan pitviper Along the southern slopes of the Himalayas from northeastern Pakistan, to northern India (Kashmir, Punjab) and Nepal. Found at 1524–3048 m altitude.
G. huangi Wang, Ren, Dong, Jiang, Shi, Siler, & Che, 2019 0 Lancang Plateau viper Tibet.
G. intermedius (Strauch, 1868) 2 Central Asian pitviper Southeastern Azerbaijan, northern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, northwestern Afghanistan, southern Russia, northwestern China and Mongolia.
G. lijianlii Jiang & Zhao, 2009 0 North coast Shandong peninsula in China.
G. liupanensis Liu, Song, & Luo, 1989 0 Gansu, China.
G. monticola (F. Werner, 1922) 0 Likiang pitviper The mountains of northern Yunnan in China.
G. qinlingensis Song & Chen, 1985 0 Shaanxi, China.
G. rickmersi Wagner, Tiutenko, Borkin, & Simonov, 2015 Kyrgyzstan
G. rubromaculatus Shi, Wang, Chen, Fang, Ding, Huang, Hou, Liu, & Li, 2017 0 Tibetan Plateau.
G. saxatilis (Emelianov, 1937) 0 Rock mamushi[5] Russia (eastern Siberia), northeastern China and North and South Korea.
G. shedaoensis (Zhao, 1979) 0 Shedao island pitviper Shedao Island, off the coast of Liaotung, China.
G. stejnegeri (Rendahl, 1933) 0 Gobi pitviper China and Mongolia.
G. strauchi (Bedriaga, 1912) 0 Strauch's pitviper The Tibetan Plateau in the provinces of Tsinghai and western Szechwan, China.
G. tsushimaensis (Isogawa, Moriya & Mitsui, 1994) 0 Tsushima Island pitviper Tsushima Island, Japan.
G. ussuriensis (Emelianov, 1929) 0 Ussuri mamushi Far east Russia (Primorskiy Kray), northeastern China, North and South Korea, as well as Quelpart Island.

*) Not including the nominate subspecies.
T) Type species.

Taxonomy[edit]

Due to the strong morphological similarity, these snakes were classified in the genus Agkistrodon until very recently. However, by 1999 cladistic studies clearly showed that Agkistrodon did not form a clade (indeed, it was not even paraphyletic) and was thus split into several genera.

A new species, G. tsushimaensis, was described by Isogawa, Moriya & Mitsui (1994). It is referred to as the Tsushima island pitviper and is found only on Tsushima Island, Japan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré TA (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Gloydius, p. 102).
  3. ^ a b c d "Gloydius ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 17 October 2006.
  4. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S (2004). Asian Pitvipers. First Edition. Berlin: Geitje Books. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
  5. ^ Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp., 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hoge AR, Romano-Hoge SA (1981). "Poisonous Snakes of the World. I. Checklist of the Pitvipers: Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae". Memórias do Instituto Butantan 42/43: 179-309. (Gloydius, new genus).
  • Isogawa, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Akira; Mitsui, Sadaaki (1994). "A new snake from the genus Agkistrodon (Serpentes: Viperidae) from Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture". Japanese J. Herpetol. 15: 101-111. (Agkistrodon tsushimaensis, new species).

External links[edit]